Planetologie für Geologen

Lehrer: Dr. Jiří Březina

SIS-Kod: MG421P46  

Länge: 2/1 Stunden, Sommer Semester 2012 
Kredite: 3 

Kursübersicht  — Annotation:

Geologie studiert den Planeten Erde, einen aus acht Solarplaneten und einen aus mehr als einer Milliarde Planeten der Milchstraße. Ich werde zeigen, wie planetologische Aspekte die Geologie bereichern und die geologische Aspekte die Planetologie lehren. Insbesondere, wir werden uns auf die geologische Aspekte von festen planetaren Körpern, einschließlich ihrer Atmosphäre konzentrieren, weil sie meistens durch geologische Prozesse entand. Beide schriftlichen Prüfungen werden multiple choice: die erste nach der Kapitel 5, die zweite innerhalb der letzten Sitzung. Diese Vorlesung wird in Tschechisch, Englisch, oder Deutsch. 


Die Entdeckungen von extrasolaren Planeten (Exoplaneten) und so genannten Weisen Planeten in unserer Galaxie (Milchstraße) setzt die Planeten-Definition in Gegensatz zu seiner Etymologie als ein kleiner relativ kalter Orbiter — it extends now to extrasolar and freely floating bodies. The term „free floating" means, of course, a gravitational orbiting around the galactic center. The relative coolness of planetary objects means temperatures without nuclear fusion., We will probably continue to call the larger of them "the brown dwarfs". The exoplanets apparently meet the classic frequency models of variously massive bodies in the universe (J. C. KAPTEYN, 1903, 1916). Even according to the newest models and observations, we expect that the number of orphans must be at least twice as many as the number of stars.

The course consists of 10 chapters:

1. physical backgrounds 
2. methods of observation 
3. terrestrial (Earth like) planets
4. Jovian planets 
5. exoplanets 
6. planetary satellites („moons“) 
7. asteroids (minor planets) 
8. Kuiper‘s belt with 4 "Plutinos" & van Oort cloud objects, comets 
9. meteorites, planetary rings & interplanetary dust 
10. origin of the Solar System 

We will focus on the geological aspects of solid bodies in the solar system, including their atmospheres, which were formed mostly by geological processes.

This course will be accompanied by laboratory work:

odrazka Introduction to Astronomical Telescopes: lenses & mirrors. 
odrazka Main types: refracting, reflecting, and combinations.
odrazka Mountings: altazimuth mounting (no polar axis available), equatorial (German) mounting, fork mounting, equatorial (English) mounting, and yoke mounting.
odrazka Accessories: eyepieces, camera, finder telescope, clock drive, slow motion controls, setting circles, solar observing screen, filters, photometers, spectroscopes, polarimeters, filar micrometers, and image tubes.
odrazka Telescope performance terms: light gathering power, resolving power, magnification, scale, focal length, focal (F) ratio (image brightness).
odrazka Interplanetary travel: planetary orbits & periods. Use Kepler’s third law to relate orbital period to the average distance of a planet from the Sun. (Hohmann) Transfer orbits (of a spacecraft). See: .
odrazka Definitions of constellations & the celestial sphere: celestial sphere, zenith, horizon, altitude, azimuth, latitude, longitude, celestial poles, celestial equator, and magnitude vs. brightness

odrazka Motion of the Stars: all stars in the sky, except Polaris, move due to the Earth’s rotation — counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere when seen from north. 

Part of the course will also be one or two field trips to observe cloudless night sky, at best at the Ondřejov observatory (weather risk), or the Sun with our telescope (possible even when the sky is slightly foggy) and to visit a collection of meteorites (the best is in the National Museum Praha). 

BEMERKUNG: Gerne werde ich Studenten-Vorschläge auf Sonder-Themen zur Eingliederung berücksichtigen, falls sie den Hauptzweck der Vorlesung unterstützen. Bitte, haben Sie Verständnis dafür, daß solche Änderung der Vorlesungsthemen möglich wird, falls sie auf der ersten Sitzung vorgetragen wird. 



odrazka Gunter FAURE & Teresa M. MENSING: Introduction to Planetary Science. The Geological Perspective; Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2007; 526 pages; ISBN 978-1-4020-5233-0.
odrazka William K. HARTMANN: Moons & Planets; Cengage Learning, 5th ed., June 2004, 428 pages + CD, ISBN 0534493939. 
odrazka Harry Y. McSWEEN, Jr.: Meteorites and Their Parent Planets; Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, thoroughly revised, 1999; 310 pages; ISBN 0-521-58751-4.
odrazka Zdeněk POKORNÝ: Exoplanety. Najdeme ve vesmíru naší Zemi? Academia, edice Průhledy, Praha; 104 stran; ISBN 978-80-200-1510-5; price 70 Kč. This unique booklet, covering the subject up to 2007, is almost out of print. The author, director of the Observatory and Planetarium of Nicolaus Copernicus in Brno within the last 5 years of his life, would certainly care for next updates of his work, if a serious dissease would not take him from this planet forever on December ř, 2007. 
odrazka Michael SEEDS & Dana BACKMAN: Horizons. Exploring the Universe; Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, 12th edition 2012, 514 pages; ISBN 978-1-111-56907-5. The whole subject is most updated, its last sections on planetology are well presented (they take about 1/4 of the book). For teaching astronomy, I have been enjoying many previous editions written by the senior author Mike Seeds since more than 20 years. To those my Astronomy courses for UMUC Europe students, I have been producing a detailed color printed Guide of 22 A4 pages (up to the 10th edition).
odrazka Ludolf SCHULTZ: Planetologie. Eine Einführung; Bechtermünz, Stuttgart 2004 (4th edition), 270 pages; ISBN 3-8289-1633-3 .